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He is a figure of the Italian Renaissance and a central figure of its political component, most widely known for his treatises on realist political theory The Prince on the one hand and republicanism Discourses on Livy on the other. Trivia About Arta Razboiului. No trivia or quizzes yet.
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Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito, Ecuador. Cephalopelvic disproportion in the pelvic inlet is a maternal risk factor in childbirth. A high number of dystocias are attended as emergencies and end in cesarean sections because there is no way to diagnose a narrow pelvis early on, a determination which would be easy to perform and at no cost to the patient.
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The aim of this study was to determine the Anterior Pelvic Index API as a predictive estimator of the obstetric conjugate diameter to differentiate modernaa and normal pelvises. The study was conducted with adolescent girls aged 14 to 19 years, from Quito, Ecuador; the parents signed the informed consent and the girls agreed to take part.
The interspinous distance, height and obstetric xller diameter were measured by ultrasonography. Then the API was calculated and the predictive value of the obstetric conjugate diameter was obtained by simple linear regression. The average API value was The association between the API and the obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography produced a Jjan correlation value of 0. The simple linear regression test between the API and the obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography was statistically significant.
Therefore, it was determined that the prediction of the obstetric conjugate diameter, having the API as a predictor, can be calculated with the following formula: Pelvis; Pelvimetry; Narrow pelvis; Obstetric conjugate diameter. One of the aspects that increases risk in pregnancy is related to cephalopelvic disproportion, which is the third cause of Cesarean section in pregnant women under 20 Guerra Verdecia et al.
For many years, obstetricians have sought a way to measure the zller inlet in order to be prepared for a possible cephalopelvic disproportion. They began by measuring the pelvis indirectly through instrumental external pelvimetry; then, with the use of the pelvic x-ray, the indirect measurement was put aside.
However, the use of x-rays in pregnancy causes fetal genetic alterations that limit their practicality. The scientific literature has reported the index of the relative iliac bicrestal width to measure the pelvic inlet, but its measurement has two drawbacks: This study was conducted on adolescent girls aged 14 to 19 years residing in the urban parishes of the Distrito Metropolitano de Quito DMQEcuador, with the aim of determining the Anterior Pelvic Index API as a predictive estimator of the obstetric conjugate diameter to differentiate narrow and normal pelvises.
This study was conducted with adolescent girls, 14 to 19 years of age, born and residing in the Distrito Metropolitano de Quito DMQEcuador, from 35 high schools in the urban educational zones of the north, center and south of the district, who had not given birth; for those who had, the delivery was vaginal, with a normal pelvis, with no underlying pathology, who could take part in the study by their parents signing the informed consent and their own agreement.
The study was approved by the Ethics Committee of the Universidad del Ecuador. To calculate the sample size, the formula to calculate this for the determination of the correlation coefficient between variables was applied, and it was selected using two-stage probability cluster sampling.
A single investigator recorded the weight, height and interspinous distance, and another measured the obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography. To this end, previously established measurement protocols were followed.
The values of the interspinous distance and height were measured in centimeters and subjected to a Pearson correlation analysis to determine their linear association. This result, like the value of the obstetric conjugate diameter, was used to construct a mathematical model, applying a simple linear regression to obtain a prediction value for the obstetric conjugate diameter by calculating coefficients of the linear regression line.
An alpha error of 0. In order to determine the API, height and interspinous distance were used; in addition, obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography was used to predict the true conjugate diameter. The mean of the height was The minimum height of the sample was cm and the maximum was cm with an interquartile range of 8.
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The coefficient of variation was 3. The measures of central tendency and dispersion, for each age, are shown in Table I. The mean of the interspinous distance was The resulting coefficient of variation was 5.
The minimum value of this distance was 20 cm and the maximum value was The interspinous distance of the adolescents according to age is shown in Table II. The mean of the obstetric conjugate diameter was The minimum value of this diameter was 10 cm and the maximum value was 12 cm.
The measures of central tendency and dispersion of this diameter according to age were distributed as shown in Table III. In order to determine the linear association between height and anterior transverse diameter, the Pearson correlation was used, the result of which was of 0.
The value of the coefficient of determination was 0. The API for each subject was calculated and an average value of The coefficient of variation was 2. The minimum value of this index was The distribution of obsttericia measures of central tendency and dispersion of this obstetricka, according to age, is shown in Table IV.
A Pearson correlation was used to establish the linear association between the API and the obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography, obtaining an r value of 0. Taking the variable API as independent and the obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography as dependent, these were subjected to a simple modrena regression test, obtaining the following results: The formula to predict the obstetric conjugate diameter, having the API as a predictor, is the modrrna Measures of central tendency and dispersion of height cm according to age years in adolescent girls in Quito, Ecuador.
Measures of central tendency and dispersion of the interspinous distance cm according to obstetrixia years in adolescent girls in Quito, Ecuador. modrrna
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Measures of central tendency and dispersion of obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography according to age years in adolescent girls in Quito, Ecuador. Measures of central tendency and dispersion of the Anterior Pelvic Index according to age years in adolescent girls in Quito, Ecuador.
Scatter plot with regression line between the values of the Anterior Pelvic Index and the obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography, in adolescent girls in Quito, Ecuador. Scatter plot with regression line between the values of the Anterior Pelvic Index and the predicted obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography, in adolescent girls in Quito, Ecuador.
Pelvimetry is an important tool when it comes time to decide the type of delivery, mainly if there is a suspicion of dystocia, which involves the decision to perform a Cesarean section at the critical moment of an obstetric emergency.
A common dystocia is cephalopelvic disproportion, which is linked to an increase in the risk of fetomaternal morbidity and mortality Lenhard et al. There have been very few scientific studies on external pelvimetry, perhaps because of today’s modern technology like MRI, ultrasound 3D, digital tomography, etc. Accordingly, the measurements taken using external pelvimetry make it possible to obtain, indirectly, the diameters of the internal pelvimetry, a principle that has motivated this study, using biostatistics as an important tool for calculation and prediction.
The interspinous distance was chosen as the measurement of external pelvimetry because it is more visible, stable and easy to measure; however, other pelvic points, like the highest point of the iliac crest, can be prone to error because, on many occasions, it is covered by abundant adipose tissue. The anterior transverse diameter measures obtained in this study The obstetric conjugate diameter, which corresponds to internal pelvimetry, was selected because it represents the narrowest space of the initial part of the birth canal and can be easily measured by ultrasonography.
The average value obtained in our study The harmonic, symmetrical and proportionate development of the human body can be seen when the correlation between height and anterior transverse diameter is calculated, since a high, statistically significant r value with a strong coefficient of determination was obtained. The correlation between the API and the obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography was positive and statistically significant.
The essential part of this study consisted of finding an adjusted formula that can predict the value of the obstetric conjugate diameter through the API, which was achieved. There are no reports in the international scientific literature on anything similar. In conclusion, the construction of the API is mathematically possible, given its strong positive correlation and its statistical significance.
Therefore, the value of the obstetric conjugate diameter can be predicted to determine a narrow pelvis from the API using the formula obtained from a simple linear regression analysis. Obstetricia Moderna, 3rd ed. The history of imaging in obstetrics. Radiology, 2 Suppl. Hidalgo de Paz, A.
Maracaibo, Universidad de Zulia, Alicante, Publicaciones Universidad de Alicante, Embarazo en adolescentes complicaciones. Pelvimetry by reformatted computed tomography in female pelvis. Morphometric variations regarding age. MATERIAL AND METHOD This study was conducted with adolescent girls, 14 to 19 years of age, born and residing in the Distrito Metropolitano de Quito DMQEcuador, from 35 high schools in the urban educational zones of the north, center and south of the district, who had not given birth; for those who had, the delivery was vaginal, with a normal pelvis, with no underlying pathology, who could take part in the study by their parents signing the informed consent and their own agreement.
RESULTS In order to determine the API, height and interspinous distance were used; in addition, obstetric conjugate diameter measured by ultrasonography was used to predict the true conjugate diameter. Casilla D Temuco – Chile Tel.:
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Back in the Gilded AgeAmerican Society gathered to meet, show off, and choose their mates at a place that was as exclusive and rule-bound as Almacks in the regency period. That place was Newport, Rhode Island. A Perfect Wife is set in Newport and janf historical figures play roles in this giodger novel.
Anne Foster is quite rich and well-connected. She is also quite impossible. Anne is fat — not pleasingly plump — fat.
Anne is also badly dressed, has bad hair and acts like she has no sense. All she does is simper foolishly and giggle, especially when Henry Owen comes goodher her. Henry is tall, slim and breathtakingly handsome. He is moderately prosperous from a shipbuilding business jjane owns and is to come into a very large fortune when he turns 30, but until then his grandfather controls the fortune and refuses to release it.
Henry desperately wants the money in order to buy prfect rescue his old childhood home of Sea Cliff which is falling prey to erosion and decay. A clause in the trust allows Henry to get his fortune before the age of 30 if he marries. Since Sea Cliff will fall into the ocean before then, Henry woos and marries Anne with no intention of being a husband to her.
On the wedding day he leaves her, ostensibly in order to go on an emergency trip.
Three weeks later, he serves her with divorce papers and leaves her a social outcast. Two years later Anne has been transformed. She has lost a lot of weight, dressed her hair in a flattering style and learned to choose becoming gowns — in short she is a Beauty.
For all her wfe looks, Anne is still an outcast.
Society will not receive a divorced woman, but they will still receive the now very rich Henry. Anne and her one loyal friend Beatrice cook up a plan for revenge goodgfr Henry. Anne will make him fall in love with her now beautiful self and break his heart as he broke hers.
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Vanderbilt, decide that she is acceptable after all, and Anne becomes a belle. Then, when she does meet Henry, she finds him sorry and bitterly ashamed of his past actions. Against her will, Anne falls in love with Henry again.
A Perfect Wife stood out for me for several reasons. First and foremost was the setting. Newport was a place that was every bit as elegant, snobbish and filled with rich and pleasure seeking people as anywhere in regency England.
It is a setting perfectly suited for stories, and I wish more romance writers would take advantage of it. Another reason this book is so memorable is the characters. Anne will break your heart at the beginning. To see this homely, badly dressed fat girl so happy and so in love, while you know that Henry has no plans to make a true marriage with her will wring tears from all but the hardest hearts.
The Perfect Wife Book Summary and Study Guide
I suppose I could have hated Henry, but Goodger does a great job of showing us why he acted as he did and his bitter regret at the conseqences to Anne. There are janne Misunderstandings in the book, but they are not Big ones — in fact, the misunderstandings between Anne and Henry are very natural given their past history and serve to advance the plot.
Although, I have rated this Warm, there is only one love scene, but it is a wonderful combination ajne sweet and sensual.
Anne is a total innocent and Goodger gives an excellent description of how this shy and innocent woman is awakened to love and desire.
Henry too, is shy and humble in the face of the love he feels for Anne. A Perfect Wife goes on my short list of good American historical romances for Do yourself a favor and give it a try — you will find a sweet and tender love story in a setting that should be utilized more often.
Buy The Perfect Wife: Ellen Micheletti Review Date: August 3, Publication Date: B Sensuality Warm Book Type: American Historical Romance Review Tags: Leave A Comment Cancel reply Comment.
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Communio et progressio: full text, concordances and frequency lists. pastoral instruction for social communication “Communio et Progressio” officially dated The first draft of “Communio et Progressio” was proposed by the Jesuit. Our world is fast progressing especially in the field of science and technology. As we all know, the Catholic Church is the guardian and.
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The importance of advertising is “steadily on the increase in modern society”. Just as the media of social communication themselves progreseio enormous influence everywhere, so advertising, using media as its vehicle, is a pervasive, powerful force shaping attitudes and behavior in today’s world. Especially since the Second Vatican Council, the Church has frequently addressed the question of the media and their role and responsibilities.
Society has a right to information based on truth, freedom, justice and solidarity. At the same time, she also calls attention to moral principles and norms relevant to social communications, as to other forms of human endeavor, while criticizing policies and practices that offend against these standards.
Here and there in the growing body of literature arising from the Church’s consideration of media, the subject of advertising is discussed. We wish to call attention to positive contributions that advertising can and does make; to note ethical and moral problems that advertising can and does raise; to point to moral principles that apply progressii this field; and, finally, to suggest certain steps for the consideration of those professionally involved in advertising, as well as for others in the private sector, including the churches, and for public officials.
Our reason for addressing these matters is simple.
Communio et Progressio
In today’s society, advertising has a profound impact on how people understand life, the world and themselves, especially in regard to their values and their ways of choosing and behaving. These are matters about which the Church is and must be deeply and sincerely concerned.
The field of advertising is extremely broad and diverse. In general terms, of course, an advertisement is simply a public notice meant to convey information and invite patronage or some other response. As that suggests, advertising has two basic purposes: Advertising is not the same as marketing the complex of commercial functions commnio in transferring goods from producers and consumers or public relations the systematic effort to create a favorable public impression or ‘ image’ of some person, group, or prigressio.
In many cases, though, it is a progreesio or instrument employed by one or both of these. Advertising can be very simple – a local, even “neighborhood”phenomenon – or it can be very complex, involving sophisticated research and multimedia campaigns that span the globe.
It differs according to its intended audience, so that, for example, advertising aimed at children raises some technical and moral issues significantly different from those raised by advertising aimed at competent adults. Not only are many different media and techniques employed in advertising; advertising itself is of several different kinds: Making allowance for the differences among the different kinds and methods of advertising, we intend what follows to be applicable to them all.
We disagree progressoo the assertion that advertising simply mirrors the attitudes and values of the surrounding culture. No doubt advertising, like the media of social communications in general, does act as a mirror. But, also like media in general, it is a mirror that helps shape the reality it reflects, and sometimes it presents a distorted image of reality.
Advertisers are selective about the values and attitudes to be fostered and encouraged, promoting some while ignoring others. This selectivity gives the lie to the notion that advertising does no more than reflect the surrounding culture.
For example, the absence from advertising of certain racial and ethnic groups in some multi-racial or multi-ethnic societies can help to create problems of image and identity, especially among those neglected, and the almost inevitable impression in commercial advertising that an abundance of possessions leads to happiness and fulfillment can be both misleading and frustrating.
Advertising also has an indirect but powerful impact on society through its influence on media. Many publications and broadcasting operations depend on advertising revenue for survival.
This often is true of religious media as well as commercial media. For their part, advertisers naturally seek to reach audiences; and the media, striving to deliver progresio to advertisers, must shape their content so to attract audiences of the size and demographic composition sought.
Communio et Progressio – Wikipedia
This economic dependency of media and the power it confers upon advertisers carries with it serious responsibilities for both. Enormous human and material resources are devoted to advertising. Advertising is everywhere in today’s world, so that, as Pope Paul VI remarked, “No one now can escape the influence of advertising”.
Some critics view this state of affairs in unrelievedly negative terms. They condemn advertising as a waste of time, talent and money – an essentially parasitic activity. In this view, not only does advertising have no value of its own, but its influence is entirely harmful and corrupting for individuals and society. We do not agree.
There is truth to the criticisms, and we shall make criticisms of our own. But advertising also has significant potential for good, and sometimes it is realized. Here are some of the ways that happens.
Advertising can play an important role in the process by which an economic system guided by moral norms and responsive to the common good contributes to human development.
It is a necessary part of the functioning of modern market economies, which today either exist or are emerging in many parts of the world and which – provided they conform to moral standards based upon integral human development and the common good – currently seem to be “the most efficient instrument for utilizing resources and effectively responding to needs” n of a socio-economic kind.
All of this can contribute to the creation of new jobs, higher incomes and a more decent and humane way of life for all. It also helps pay for publications, programming and productions – including those of the Church – that bring information, entertainment and inspiration to people around the world.
As free and responsible media in a democratic system help to counteract tendencies toward the monopolization of power on the part of oligarchies and special interests, so political advertising can make its contribution by informing people about the ideas and policy proposals of parties and candidates, including new candidates not previously known to the public.
Because of the impact advertising has on media that depend on it for revenue, advertisers have an opportunity to exert a positive influence on decisions about media content. This they do by supporting material of excellent intellectual, aesthetic and moral quality presented with the public interest in view, and particularly by encouraging and making possible media presentations which are oriented to minorities whose needs might otherwise go unserved.
Moreover, advertising can itself contribute to the betterment of society by uplifting and inspiring people and motivating them to act in ways that benefit themselves and others. Advertising can brighten lives simply by being witty, tasteful and entertaining. Some advertisements are instances of popular art, with a vivacity and elan all their own. In many cases, too, benevolent social institutions, including those of a religious nature, use advertising to communicate their messages – messages of faith, of patriotism, of tolerance, compassion and neighborly service, of charity toward the needy, messages concerning health and education, constructive and helpful messages that educate and motivate people in a variety of beneficial ways.
For the Church, involvement in proggessio activities, including advertising, is today a necessary part of a comprehensive pastoral strategy.
Communio et Progressio | Daily Theology
The media “can and should be instruments in the Church’s program of re-evangelization and new evangelization in the contemporary world”. With reference to advertising itself, Pope Paul VI once said that it is desirable that Catholic institutions “follow with constant attention the development of the modern techniques of advertising and There is nothing intrinsically good or intrinsically evil about advertising.
It is a tool, an instrument: If it can have, and sometimes does have, beneficial results such as those just described, it also can, and often does, have a negative, harmful impact on individuals and society. Communio et Progressio contains this summary statement of the problem: More than this, unremitting pressure to buy articles of luxury can arouse false wants that hurt both individuals and families by making them ignore what they really need.
And those forms of advertising which, without shame, exploit the sexual instincts simply to make money or which seek to penetrate into the subconscious recesses of the mind in a way that threatens the freedom of the individual Advertising can betray its role as a source of information by misrepresentation and by withholding relevant facts. Sometimes, too, the information function of media can be subverted by advertisers’ pressure upon publications or programs not to treat of questions that might prove embarrassing or inconvenient.
More often, though, advertising is used not simply to inform but to persuade and motivate – to convince people to act in certain ways: This is where particular abuses can occur. The practice of “brand” -related advertising can raise serious problems.
Often there are only negligible differences among similar products of different brands, and advertising may attempt to move people to act on the basis of irrational motives “brand loyalty,” status, fashion, “sex appeal,” etc. Advertising also can be, and often is, a tool of the “phenomenon of consumerism,” as Pope John Paul II delineated it when he said: But the abuse is still more grave when consumerist attitudes and values are transmitted by communications media and advertising to developing countries, where they exacerbate socio-economic problems and harm the poor.
But serious harm can be done them if advertising and commercial pressure become so irresponsible that communities seeking to rise from poverty to a reasonable standard of living are persuaded to seek this progress by satisfying wants that have been artificially created. The result of this is that they waste their resources and neglect their real needs, and genuine development falls behind”.
The problem is particularly acute when, as often happens, the dignity and welfare of society’s poorer and weaker members are at stake.
It is necessary always to bear in mind that there are “goods which by their very nature cannot and must not be bought or sold” and to avoid “an ‘idolatry’ of the market” that, aided and abetted by advertising, ignores this crucial fact. Political advertising can support and assist the working of the democratic process, but it also can obstruct it.
This happens when, for example, the costs of advertising limit political competition to wealthy candidates or groups, or require that office-seekers compromise st integrity and independence by over-dependence on special interests for funds. Such obstruction of the democratic process also happens when, instead of being a vehicle for honest expositions of candidates’ views and records, political advertising seeks to distort the views and records of opponents and unjustly attacks their reputations.
It happens when advertising appeals pogressio to people’s emotions and base instincts – to selfishness, bias and hostility toward others, to racial and ethnic prejudice and the like – rather than to a reasoned sense of justice and the comkunio of all. Advertising also can have a corrupting influence upon culture and cultural values. We have spoken of the economic harm that can be done to developing nations by advertising that fosters consumerism and destructive patterns of consumption.
Consider also the cultural injury done to these nations and their peoples by advertising whose content and methods, reflecting those prevalent in the first world, are at war with sound traditional values in indigenous cultures. Today this kind of “domination and manipulation” via media rightly is “a concern of developing nations in relation to developed ones,” as well as a “concern of minorities within particular nations”.
In the competition to attract ever larger audiences and deliver them to advertisers, communicators can find themselves tempted – in fact pressured, subtly or not so subtly – to set aside high artistic and moral standards and lapse into progreszio, tawdriness and moral squalor. Communicators also can find themselves tempted to ignore the educational and social needs of certain segments of the audience – the very young, the proggessio old, the poor – who do not match the demographic patterns age, education, comunio, habits of buying and consuming, etc.
In this way the tone and indeed the level of moral responsibility of the communications media in general are lowered. All too often, advertising contributes to the invidious stereotyping of particular groups that dommunio them at a disadvantage in relation to others. This often is true of the way advertising treats women; and the exploitation of women, both in and by advertising, is a frequent, deplorable abuse.
How often is the role of woman as wife and mother undervalued or even ridiculed? How often is the role of women in business or professional life depicted as a masculine caricature, a denial of the specific gifts of feminine communi, compassion, and understanding, which so greatly contribute to the ‘civilization of love’? Advertising can be tasteful communil in conformity with high moral standards, and occasionally even morally uplifting, but it also can be vulgar and morally degrading.
Frequently it deliberately appeals to such motives as envy, status seeking and lust.
Today, too, some advertisers consciously seek to shock and titillate by exploiting content of a morbid, perverse, pornographic nature.
What this Pontifical Council said several years ago progreesio pornography and violence in the media is no less true of certain forms of advertising: In the prohressio quarter century, however, they have taken on new dimensions and have become serious social problems.
At a time of widespread and unfortunate confusion about moral norms, the communications media have made pornography and violence accessible to a vastly expanded audience, including young people and even children, and a problem which at one time was confined ett to wealthy countries has now begun, via the communications media, to corrupt moral values in developing nations”.
In cases of the first sort, commercial advertisers sometimes include religious themes or ft religious images or personages to sell products. It is possible to do this in tasteful, acceptable ways, but the practice is obnoxious and offensive when it involves exploiting religion or treating it flippantly.
In cases of the second sort, advertising sometimes is used to promote products and inculcate attitudes and forms of behavior contrary to moral norms. That is the case, for instance, with the advertising of contraceptives, abortifacients and products harmful to health, and with government-sponsored advertising campaigns for artificial birth control, so-called “safe sex”and similar practices. The Second Vatican Council declared: For Christians, moreover, the cimmunio of human nature has a deeper dimension, a richer meaning.
Either they help human persons to grow in their understanding and practice of what is true and good, or they are destructive forces in conflict with human well being.
Canopus in Argos: Archives [Doris Lessing] on *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Book by Lessing, Doris. This book is the fourth volume in the second series, called Canopus in Argos: Archives, begun in with Shikasta. Lessing, better known as. Canopus in Argos is a sequence of science fiction novels by Nobel Prize winning author Doris Lessing, first published from to , which portray a.
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Refresh and try again. Open Preview See a Problem? Thanks for telling us about the problem. Doros to Book Page. Preview — Canopus in Argos by Doris Lessing. Archives Canopus in Argos by Doris Lessing. Even as it gives an epic account of the struggles between Canopus and its rivals over the fate of the universe, ‘Canopus in Argos’ comments, with Lessing’s characteristic insight and eloquence, on human history and dofis prospects for the future.
Canopus in Argos – Wikiquote
Paperbackpages. Published December 29th by Vintage first published August 12th Canopus in Argos To see what your friends thought of this book, please sign up. To ask other readers questions about Canopus in Argosplease sign up. Lists with This Book. If you’re into stuff like this, you can read the full review. An admittedly less-than-thorough examination of Lessing’s work leads me to conclude that her primary faults are bad i. On the other hand, I admit that I’ve never been very impressed with Stapledon, either; I’ll acknowledge that this may be a matter of taste while observing that various mundane reviewers also seem unimpressed with the Canopus Archives.
In fact, I expect that most “hardcore SF fans” however few of them are left will simply ignore Lessing. This review was changed from 2 stars to 5 stars Sep 16, Michael Battaglia rated it it was amazing.
If you’ve never heard of this series before, if you ever see it on a shelf in a bookstore it’s going to look like something left behind from another planet. At least that’s how it seemed to me. More years ago than I’d like to imagine I was browsing the shelves of a giant local chain bookstore and as is my nature my eye tended to focus on the large bricks of books since there’s some weird part of me that conflates “doorstop” with “mark of ineffable quality”.
The title itself was both simple and o If you’ve never heard of this series before, if you ever see it on a shelf in a bookstore it’s going to look like something left behind from another planet.
The title itself was both simple and odd, “Canopus in Argos: Archives”, like it was some kind of scientific treatise. And it turned out the brick was just an omnibus for five novels, each of which had a title that seemed to have been translated from another language improperly. Colonised Planet 5, Shikasta”? Even when the titles did correspond to what I imagined as actual English, it gave no clue as to what the stories might be about.
And this read like it should be SF but. I didn’t buy it right away and when I did get around to it the volume had gone out of print.
And then I didn’t read it for ten years after I bought it hey, books have to take a number. Now that I have, I can pretty much say it’s what I expected. Back then I had no idea who Doris Lessing was, although over time I figured out that was one of them literary types, eventual Nobel Prize winner, now sadly deceased. Reading her introduction to this collection and other background notes, it’s clear that she became fascinated by what she charmingly calls “space fiction” which reminds me of something might a grandmother might say looking through her grandkids’ “Buck Rogers” comics or whatnot not only as a genre but as one that would allow her to tell certain kinds canopys stories that wouldn’t be possible in the framework of straightforward realistic literary doriz.
It’s an odd rule, you can go all stream of consciousness, you can tell stories forwards, backwards, sideways, have hallucinations and dream sequences and unreliable narrators, but as soon as you unironically start sticking spaceships into things, you’ve just demoted your novel to the kiddie table. What’s heartening here is how unabashedly and completely Lessing embraced SF but in her own way. The main characters are definitely aliens, even if they talk like people. Everyone visits other planets even if the spaceships cahopus sometimes kept offscreen.
Eons are often covered in the expanse of a story. There are competing galactic empires and enemy agents and spies. There’s enough SF so that you can’t really mistake it for anything else, but readers walking in thinking they are going to get standard SF will be utterly confused.
Canopus in Argos: Archives
There’s hardly any fighting or space battles and most of what passes for genre cliches are blissfully absent, replaced by something wholly strange, recognized only when viewed through skewed glass. There’s never a sense that she’s slumming or talking down to the mouth-breathing SF readers and in a world where other writers sometimes work hard to backpedal any elements in their books that might be remotely construed as SF and reassure people that, “No, no, I’m writing about serious things” even when they really have aliens and spaceships, Lessing’s attitude toward this is remarkably refreshingshe simply feels this is the genre that best fits these particular stories she wants to tell.
Still, reading them all in a row does require some adjusting, SF fan or not. None of them are geared toward telling a continuous story but rather a patchwork depicting the various relationships between Canopus the nice empire, more or lessthe Sirian Empire and the dark and dastardly Shammat, all of which have various traits that are often contrasted with each other, especially in their effects on alien societies.
At least three of them are written as field reports, meaning that they can come across as rather dry in parts, a relating of events that happened as opposed to a depiction of events that are happening and as they are reports, imagine what your local real estate agent might write back as observations to his or her supervisors, but from an alien planet instead.
Except most of the time, we’re the aliens. As I said, some adjusting is required. Most of it, frankly, screams “didactic” and your tolerance for the series for a whole may have more to do with your appetite for stories that are blatantly a commentary on society and in that sense isn’t much different from taking a Native American character from the s and dumping him in London to see what hilarity ensues.
With that in mind, the first book “Shikasta” is probably going to come across as the strangest, as least until you get used to the style. Told as a series of field reports spanning centuries, it lays the basic template of Canopus and Sirius doing their best to influence other worlds before Shammat comes in to screw things up.
This was Lessing’s first foray into SF and as such im as extraordinarily bizarre, one woman’s take on a genre that she’s familiar with and not really caring if she’s following any of the “rules” or not.
The early section depicting what you eventually llessing out is Earth’s prehistory, with the giants and castles and lead agent Johor walking around the ruins of previous civilizations has an eeriness to it, as if she’s tapping into some kind of lost memory.
It becomes less exciting when you do realize that you’re on Earth and she’s merely relating Earth’s history but through the eyes of aliens, the early sections feel so odd and unfamiliar that to realize she’s observing WWII Germany feels like a bit of a letdown. She does eventually move past that into the future and for me the canopua finally comes alive when she starts to relate the story through the journals of a girl named Rachel.
These sections feel like they play more to her strengths and include some honest human emotion, giving the story that all the vaguely dippy “Substance of We-Feeling” talk is lacking. But I give her points for a “try-anything” approach. About every other story in here uses that journal format and so the in-between tales, like “The Marriages Between Zones Three, Four and Five” almost act like palette cleansers.
People have commented that this one feels like a fairy tale and in a sense that’s true. The Zones are mentioned in the first leseing and seem to exist as metaphorical and spiritual areas and are places that Canopus feels the need to interfere regularly, insisting xanopus the queen of Zone Three marry the more militant prince of Zone Four and in turn he marries the more tribal queen of Zone Five.
Having actual people doing things like riding horses and having sex makes all the talk about Zones much more cwnopus and since the focus of the story is more gender relations and their interactions each Zone seems to have its own characteristics that affect each us as they intermingle moreit becomes a bit easier to relate to, feeling more like a fantasy tale that is bent on conveying its point of view.
If you can stomach all the talk about Zones, it’s actually rather charming and she does make you feel for the characters almost from the get-go, something that “Shikasta” struggled with for a bit. Things flip back to Earth for “The Sirian Experiments”, basically showing what the Sirians were doing on Earth during the first book they had taken over, or were argodse, the southern continents in the name of rampant scientific experimentation.
The oddly named Ambien II is one of the Five, who run the empire. Much of the book deals with depicting how Sirian singlemindedness they are vague fascist but not necessarily evil leaves it unable to view Canopus as anyone other than a competitor, despite Canopus more or less doing only nice things. The central crux of the book is a series of interactions between Ambien II and her Canopus counterparts, although the book doesn’t heat up until the metaphors hit the fan and Shammat swoops in to take over and corrupt everything.
Those scenes have a tension that suggest Lessing is finally finding her footing in the format and telling a story instead of just telling us things that resemble a story.
Unfortunately they are few and far between, but really liven up events when they do transpire. Told in a slow moving rush of words that occasionally breaks into a paragraph, it takes us to a world that is dying.
Canopus instructs the world to build a giant wall and the narrator discusses argosd events as they circle the world near the wall, watching their world slowly succumb to ice and cold and wondering when Canopus is going to swoop in and save them. Much like Kate Bush, Lessing apparently knows every word for snow and her descriptions of everyone trying not to think about freezing to death while everyone around them freezes to death is harrowing in its way. It ends mystically, which is about the only way something like this can end without everyone dying.
It also acts as a nice cleanser and I give Lessing credit dorjs taking an idea and following it through to the bitter and weird end. Klorathy relates events back to Johor from another world, where Canopus and Shammat and Sirius are once again vying for domination, this time through a war of words. There’s more of a sense of satire here but discussions of the effects of Rhetoric and ideas, while not subtle, seem to depict an avenue of metaphorical SF that was never quite taken.
It keeps the strangeness that lessin the earlier novels but in the context of this novel, makes it strange indeed as people come down with rhetorical diseases and have to be reeducated, argosfe in treatments at hospitals that may not take.
Klorathy acts like a calm man knowing that he’s running out of time and while she can’t keep the tone consistent I’m never sure what’s happening to Incent is supposed to be amusing or terrifying lessing interactions between the various factions are chilling, watching them yank an otherwise clueless world this way and that in the name of dominance, all the while claiming its for their own good.
The sense of narrative drive is strongest here and what it lacks in off the wall weirdness it makes up for in being a arhosde of coherent strange I can relate to, with actual villains and conflicts as opposed to people telling me things that I’m supposed to assume are standing in for something else here it’s probably Lessjng Russia.
Canopus in Argos : Archives
I can’t say that any of these completely worked as both novels and commentaries, sometimes it seemed like Lessing was in a constant war to write SF and also craft meaningful critiques of society as she understood it, and it’s not always clear which side won. But they are never less than interesting reading, especially for SF fans, who might wonder what is possible to do in a genre when you stop wondering about appealing to a certain fanbase or dealing with what the rules are.
The mass impact of these novels on the genre was probably about zero, which is a shame in itself. In a world where one man’s spaceship empire war could easily be swapped out for another’s, trying something different should be less rare than it is.
And if the author never quite understood how different from the norm the stories are, so much the better. May 30, Loren rated it it was amazing Recommends it for: Back in the s, I loved the idea that Doris Lessing was trying the scifi genre and started naturally, for me with the third book of this five-book series. I found it incomprehensible and badly-written, doirs wanted very much to like it, because I liked Lessing and wanted to see a serious author make a real go of science fiction.
Now, long after she finished sort canlpus her Canopus series, I still go back every once in a while and reread and marvel. It’s turgid, it’s not good in many places, it’ Back in the s, I loved the idea that Doris Lessing was trying the scifi genre and started naturally, for me with the third book of this five-book series.
It’s turgid, it’s not good in many places, it’s preachy, it’s humorless or, worse, heavyhanded in its humor – and it’s wonderful. I have read it straight through twice, and go zrgosde to browse at least once a year. I recommend it to Lessing fans who haven’t read it lssing I recommend it to scifi fans; I recommend it to openminded fiction lovers who want to see the boundaries of fiction expanded. May 23, Jeff rated it really liked it. As an “omnibus collection” covering millions of years of universal development, it’s enough to say that Canopus in Argos rewards patience, pauses, and revisitation.
The opening book is the least engaging, if the most familiar it takes place on Earth in reasonably modern timesand it’s difficult to ask that readers wade through the almost pages of it as a primer for xanopus rest of the collection.
The second book, though, is unbelievably more honed and crafted in the direction of revolutionary As an canopu collection” covering millions of years of universal development, it’s enough to say that Canopus in Argos rewards patience, pauses, and revisitation. The second book, though, is unbelievably more honed and crafted in the direction of revolutionary ‘space fiction,’ without seeming too much like pure fantasy.